The unit would be factory-made and shipped as a 4.5m diameter, 7.5m high module, then installed in a tank of water which gives passive heat removal and shielding. Some of these elements have been re-reprocessed at the Marcoule Pilot Plant. This ability to create, or "breed," additional fuel accounts for the name given to these types of reactors. It would still use sodium as coolant. It also affirmed the importance of international cooperation in such an endeavour, and was briefed on progress with France’s Astrid project. The Westinghouse LFR will incorporate the company’s latest advanced fuel which is accident-tolerant. All transuranic elements are removed together in the electrometallurgical reprocessing so that fresh fuel has minor actinides with the plutonium and uranium. It is to have active and passive shutdown systems and passive decay heat removal. In contrast to most normal nuclear reactors, however, a fast reactor uses a coolant that is not an efficient moderator, such as liquid sodium, so its neutrons remain high-energy. MEXT was reported to be in favour of persevering with Monju, while METI was keen to scrap it, partly to get rid of the bad image. In 2006 it was rolled into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP, now IFNEC), but then moved out of it in 2009. ** While the conversion ratio (the ratio of new fissile nuclei to fissioned nuclei) in a normal reactor is around 0.6, that in a fast reactor may exceed 1.0. This fast reactor proposal was supported by the USA in connection with GNEP/IFNEC and the Korean Prototype Generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) is planned for construction by 2028. In any reactor some of the U-238 component is turned into several isotopes of plutonium during its operation. The attractive features of the MSR fuel cycle include: the high-level waste comprising fission products only, hence shorter-lived radioactivity; small inventory of weapons-fissile material (Pu-242 being the dominant Pu isotope); low fuel use (the French self-breeding variant claims 50kg of thorium and 50kg U-238 per billion kWh); and safety due to passive cooling up to any size. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is well advanced in design of ALLEGRO on behalf of Euratom. For these reasons, in the U.S., President Carter halted such spent fuel reprocessing, making the use of breeder reactors problematic. See also information page on Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel. One effect of the 1980s halt to FNR development is that separated plutonium (from reprocessing used light water reactor fuel) which was originally envisaged for FNRs is now being used as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in conventional reactors. Fission products can be replaced by adding natural or even depleted uranium with no further enrichment required. In 2015 JAEA with MHI-MFBR became the second largest contributor to the programme, after Areva NP (now Framatome). It would be refuelled at the pyro-processing plant and have a design life of 60 years. Natural uranium contains about 0.7% U-235 and 99.3% U-238. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a revolutionary reactor design concept developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It has much enhanced safety and improved economy – while capital cost is 20% more than VVER-1200, operating cost is expected to be only 15% more than VVER. No pumps are needed to effect continuous isothermal vapour/liquid internal flow at less than atmospheric pressure. Nevertheless, fast reactor systems will feature in further INPRO work. To test the capacity of high-temperature components and heat processes. Concentration of fissile plutonium is 16%. These slower neutrons are also called thermal neutrons because they are brought to the same temperature as the surrounding coolant. For all STAR concepts, regional fuel cycle support centres would handle fuel supply and reprocessing, and fresh fuel would be spiked with fission products to deter misuse. Core height was 1.2 m with 42 fuel assemblies, 25 internal blankets and 36 radial blankets. This builds on some 390 reactor-years experienced with fast neutron reactors over five decades and in eight countries. It will have fast-response load-following capability of about 20% per minute ramping while maintaining reactor temperature to mitigate thermal cycle fatigue in components. It was the only fast reactor to use a full core of Pu-U mixed oxide fuel, and was sodium-cooled. This is a large unit which will burn actinides with uranium and plutonium in oxide fuel. In the USA, five fast neutron reactors have operated, and several more designed. Early perceptions that those uranium resources were scarce caused several countries to embark upon extensive FBR development programs. IFR fuel first used in 1986 reached 19% burnup (compared with 3-4% for conventional reactors), and 22% was targeted. Fuels would include depleted uranium and any other fissile or fertile materials. In 2009 Rosatom set up a joint venture, AKME-engineering, to build a prototype 100 MWe SVBR reactor, but in 2018 the project was dropped. The blanket around the core will have uranium as well as thorium, so that further plutonium (ideally high-fissile Pu) is produced as well as the U-233. Pu239, which is created when U238 captures a neutron, forms U239 and then undergoes two beta decays, happens to be even better at fissioning than U235. Equilibrium MOX level will be about 17%. It was closed down at the end of 1993, and since 2001 it has been deactivated under care and maintenance pending possible decommissioning. Phénix operation was geared towards achieving the highest possible fuel burnup (which is incompatible with weapons-grade Pu production). Whereas light-water reactors (LWR: including PWR, BWR and SCWR) employ regular water as a neutron moderator, fast reactors do not. Fast reactors generally have an excess of neutrons (due to low parasitic absorbtion), the neutrons given off by fission reactions can “breed” more fuel from otherwise non-fissionable isotopes or can be used for another purposes (e.g.transmutation of spent nuclear fuel). The fast reactor has no moderator and relies on fast neutrons alone to cause fission, which for uranium is less efficient than using slow neutrons. Astrid is called a 'self-generating' fast reactor rather than a breeder in order to demonstrate low net plutonium production. This was developing a fully-integrated system with electrometallurgical 'pyroprocessing', fuel fabrication and fast reactor in same complex*. Neutrons produced by fission have high energies and move extremely quickly. Temperatures range from 510°C to 850°C, compared with less than 330°C for today's light water reactors, and this means that three of them can be used for thermochemical hydrogen production. They would have a homogeneous core with two enrichment zones of mixed oxide fuel, plus blanket and reflector. Experiments on a 19-year old UK breeder reactor before it was decommissioned in 1977, and on EBR-II in the USA in 1986, showed that the metal fuel with liquid sodium cooling system made them less sensitive to coolant failures than the more conventional very high pressure water and steam systems in light water reactors. The BN-1200 fast reactor is being developed by OKBM Afrikantov in Zarechny as a next step towards Generation IV designs, and the design was expected to be complete by 2016. Fast reactors are designed to operate at high temperatures to produce superheated steam at ~ 500°C or more to have a high thermodynamic efficiency. A prototype was envisaged by 2015. IFR would breed more fuel and is distinguished by a nuclear fuel cycle that uses reprocessing via electrorefining at the reactor site. The 400 MWt Fast Flux Test Facility was in full operation 1982-92 at Hanford as a major national research reactor. A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in nuclear marine propulsion.Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid (water or gas), which in turn runs through steam turbines. In October 2016 METI’s Conference on Fast Reactor Development agreed that it would be technologically possible to develop a demonstration reactor using the experience obtained from the prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR) Monju and the experimental reactor Joyo, owned by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). To this must be added the several hundred breeder sub-assemblies where the plutonium forms. The Fukui governor reminded the panel that Monju was positioned in the national Strategic Energy Plan to become an international research base for studies on waste volume reduction, the mitigation of danger, and other improvements to technologies related to nuclear non-proliferation. The sodium coolant delivers 525-550°C at little more than atmospheric pressure. et al., BN-1200 Reactor Power Unit Design Development, OKBM Afrikantov, presented at the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, held in Paris on 4-7 March 2013 A related project is the Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor – STAR – being developed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. Rostechnadzor granted a site licence to RIAR in August 2014, a construction licence in May 2015, and completion is expected in 2020. In all, the equivalent of four-and-a-half cores from the Phénix plant have been reprocessed, which accounts for 25 tonnes of fuel.". In December 2013 a US Federal Register notice said that the USA had negotiated an agreement with China “that would facilitate the joint development of TWR technology” from TerraPower, including standing wave versions of it. SSTAR will eventually be coupled to a Brayton cycle turbine using supercritical carbon dioxide. In a “wave” that moves through the core at only one centimetre per year, the U-238 would be bred progressively into Pu-239, which is the actual fuel and undergoes fission. With construction completed, in June 2015 Bhavini was "awaiting clearance from the AERB for sodium charging, fuel loading, reactor criticality and then stepping up power generation." All involve closed fuel cycle, and three reprocessing routes were considered: advanced aqueous, oxide electrowinning and metal pyroprocessing (electrorefining). It will be factory-produced, with components readily assembled onsite, and with 'walk-away' passive safety. It ceased generating power early in 2009 but ran until October 2009 as a research reactor. The CFR1000 will be a commercial unit (CCFR) of 1000-1200 MWe. In a sodium-cooled reactor, collisions slow the neutrons to ~10,000,000 km/hr - but they are still called FAST neutrons. 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